In this article, we are going to tell you about ** Power Factor
Meters**. Also, the types, structure, principles, and

**are explained in detail. Also, power factor meter diagrams are included.**

__working methods of the power factor meters____Power Factor Meter__

__Power Factor Meter__

The ** power factor** is the cosine of the angle (phase angle) É¸
between the current passing through an AC circuit and the voltage found
parallel to the load.

** Power factor meters** are meters that measure the power factor
of a circuit and display it directly on its scale. These are called

**. In industries, if a consumer's power factor is less than the standard power factor, then that consumer has to pay a penalty. (WAPDA Standard Power Factor is currently 0.9 leaking)**

__power factor meters__**are installed in industries to check or monitor individual load, any group of loads, or the total load power factor of the industry. To avoid the penalty that has to be paid in case of a low**

__Power Factor Meters__**power factor**.

**Or**

The ratio between the actual power (KW) and the external
power (KVA) of the load obtained in an AC circuit is called the ** power factor**.
It is denoted by cos É¸.

__Power Factor Formula__

__Power Factor Formula__

**Power Factor = True Power (KW)/Apparent Power (KVA)**

**Power Factor Cos É¸ = W/VA**

__Circuit of
Power Factor__

__Circuit of Power Factor__

Wattmeter shows real power. The product of the ampere meter and
voltmeter readings is called the ** apparent power**. The power factor of a single
fair load can be determined by connecting these three meters to the circuit
according to the shape. In this case, dividing the wattmeter reading by the
voltmeter and ampere meter reading gives the

**of the load. In practice, this method of determining the power factor is not easy. Therefore, meters have been developed which can directly measure the power factor of AC load.**

__power factor__Power Factor Meter |

__Types of
Power Factor Meters__

__Types of Power Factor Meters__

**are mainly divided into two classes.**

__Power factor meters__

__1. Types of
power factor meters in terms of supply__

__1. Types of power factor meters in terms of supply__

**Single Phase Power Factor Meters****Three-Phase Power Factor Meters****Power factor meters for three-phase balanced load****Power factor meters for three phases unbalance load**

__2. Types of
power factor meters in terms of structure__

__2. Types of power factor meters in terms of structure__

**Moving Coil Power Factor Meters****Moving Iron Power Factor Meters**

__Single
Phase Dynamometer Type P.F Meters__

__Single Phase Dynamometer Type P.F Meters__

A device that measures the ** power factor** in a single-phase AC
circuit, under the influence of the mechanical force found between the two
current-carrying conductors. The single-phase

**dynamometer**type is called a power factor. This power factor meter is also called a coming power coil or power factor meter. It is also called a quadrature coil power factor meter. It is also called crossed

**coil power factor meter.**

__Working
Principle__

__Working Principle__

The working principle of ** dynamometer **type moving coil

__(and to a considerable extent also the same) is the same. Which is a dynamometer-type moving coil wattmeter. The torque coming into the meter's moving system depends on the interaction of the magnetic field of the current coils and the pressure coils. The motion of the moving system (clockwise or counter-clockwise) depends on the nature of the load current, whether the load current is inductive or resistive.__

**power factor meter**Single Phase Meters |

__Theory__

__Theory__

Suppose the ** power factor** of the load with which the power factor
meter is fitted, the moving system (i.e. both moving coils P

_{1}and P

_{2}) for this value of the

**power factor**is balanced by rotating É¸ angle from its first position.

TP_{1} = KVi_{L} Cos É¸ * Sin Ñ²

TP_{2} = KVi_{L} Cos(90 - É¸) * Sin(90 + Ñ²)

TP_{1} = TP_{2}

**Or** Cos É¸*Sin Ñ² =
Cos(90 - É¸)*Sin(90 – Ñ²)

**Or** Tan Ñ² = Tan É¸

**Or ** Ñ² = É¸

__Three
Phase Dynamometer Type P.F meter (for Balance Load)__

__Three Phase Dynamometer Type P.F meter (for Balance Load)__

** Three Phase Dynamometer** Type

**is used to determine the power factor of three-phase balanced load.**

__Power Factor Meter____Construction__

__Construction__

The figure shows the structure and connection of the three-phase
** dynamometer **type

**for a balanced load. It has C1 and C2 double wire loops of thick wire. These have been added to the series in a series of three-round supply red phases.**

__power factor__The line current passes through both of them. Between these two
fixed coils, two pressure coils P1 and P2 are connected at 120° and fitted on a
pivoted spindle. Therefore, these two move together. In the P1 series, high
resistance R is added to connect between Y (i.e. Yellow) phase and R (i.e. Red)
phase.

Three Phase Meter |

__Working
Method__

__Working Method__

To generate torque in a **single-phase** supply, artificial
arrangements have to be made to obtain a phase shift.

But in this instrument, since the moving coils are connected to
two phases of the three-phase system (which differ from each other by 120°
electrical degrees depending on the difference), there is a need for artificial
phase shifting. Does not fall since both the coils are also mechanically
connected to 120. Therefore, in the case of balance load (depending on the value
of power factor of the load), rotating torque is generated in them. Which moves
the pointer from the unit position according to the phase angle of the circuit.
In the case of the capacitive load, this movement will be on the left. But in
practice, the leading power factor is very low. In the case of inductive load,
the pointer will move to the right.

__Theory__

__Theory__

**T1 = KV _{RY} iCos(30 + É¸) Sin(60 + Ñ²)**

**T2 = KV _{RB} iCos(30 - É¸) Sin(120 + Ñ²)**

**Cos(30 - É¸) Sin(60 + Ñ²) = Cos(30 - É¸) Sin(120 + Ñ²)**

__Tree Phase
Dynamometer Types P.F Meter (for Unbalance Load)__

__Tree Phase Dynamometer Types P.F Meter (for Unbalance Load)__

A three-wire three-phase system is usually balanced. Because this
supply is given to three-phase machines. The **three-phase** four-wire system, on
the other hand, is generally unbalanced. Because of this single-phase supply is
also obtained. Which is obtained from a single-phase and neutral. Thus the
system becomes unbalanced due to different loads on the **three phases**.

__Working
Principle__

__Working Principle__

In the above sequence, two **magnetic fields** are formed, one due to
pressure coils and the other due to current coils. Both magnetic fields are
automatically rotating without any additional arrangement. Because the three
phases of **three-phase** supply are at 120 (electrical) degrees.

Three Phase Meter |

If the load is purely resistive (in this case the ** power factor** is
unit), then the magnetic field of the coils and the

**magnetic field**of the current coils will be in phase with each other. And both will rotate at synchronous speed. Therefore, no

**mechanical torque**will be generated on the moving system (pressure coils). That way she will stay still. And the measuring needle unit will stand on the power factor. If there is some inductance or capacitance in the load then both the

**magnetic fields**are not in phase. Due to this, the torque will act on the moving system and it will tell the corresponding

**power factor**by moving left or right depending on the

**of the load.**

__power factor__Thanks For Reading.

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