# Controller Modes-ON/OFF Mode-Proportional Mode-Integral Mode-Derivative Mode-PID Mode and Formulas

Controller mode is the way in which a control system issues orders related to deviation. From the point of view of controlling instruments, controller mod is a method by which the controller changes its output according to deviations.

Controller Modes

Controller mode is the way in which a control system issues orders related to deviation. From the point of view of controlling instruments, controller mod is a method by which the controller changes its output according to deviations.

Enlist the types of controller modes

1. ON/OFF Modes
2. Proportional Modes
3. Integral Modes
4. Derivative Modes

There are four basic modes of this controller. The rest of the mods are made from their combination. Which are as follows.

1. Proportional Integral Control Mode (P+I)
2. Proportional Derivative Control Mode (P+D)
3. Proportional Integral Derivative Control Mode (P+I+D)

ON/OFF Mode/Two Way Mode/Bang Bang Mode

On-off control mode is a control system in which the final control element is either on or off. That is, it has only two positions on or off. Hence it is also called Two Way Control and Bang Bang Control.

Working Principle

On-Off control oscillates above and below the controlled variable set point in control mode. That is, the controlled rebel does not reach its set point. This system is not permanent but always oscillating. Input's 100% changes require a 200% change in output. Which reduces the gain of the controller. This is about 0.5. If the pointer is moved from left to right, then a 50% change in input leads to a 100% change in output. In this case, the gain of the controller is higher.

Proportional Modes

A mode of the control system in which the percentage change in the output of the final control element is proportional to the percentage change in error. This is called proportional control mode.

Integral Control Mode

Integral action is also called reset action. A control whose output is proportional to the integral of the input. This is called integral mode/Action.

Derivative Modes

A control system whose output is proportional to the derivation of its input time. And this process is called derivative mode.

Proportional + Integral (P+I) Control Mode

Integral with proportional control is added to eliminate offset error caused by proportional control. Integral control integrates input signal offset error. That is, its output is proportional to the integral of the input. In the integral control action, the controller keeps changing its output until the offset error is eliminated.

Integral control, if used separately, has a very weak response. If the error signal is stopped, the response of the integral control is initially a ramp type. Conversely, if the step error signal is given at the input of the proportional controller, then its output is also stepping proportional to the input.

But cannot completely clear the proportional controller. Since the offset error generated by the proportional controller cannot be ignored. Therefore integral controller is used along with a typical controller. The integral controller integrates any difference between the setpoint and the measured quantity in the process. When the proportional control and the integral control are used together, the change or difference caused by the proportional control in a reset time can be corrected.

Controller Gain/Proportional Band Formulas

The ratio of the change in input and output of the controller is called gain.

Controller Gain = Delta Output/Setpiont-Measurement

Gain = 1/Proportional Band%

The ratio between the proportional band and the gain.

Proportional Band% = 1/Gain*100

P.B

A proportional band is the amount of full-scale operator that turns on or off completely. Proportional bands often denote P. B.

Relation b/w Gain and Proportional Band

The higher the proportional band, the lower the gain. Similarly, the lower the proportional band, the higher the gain. That is, they are inversely proportional to each other.

Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID) Modes

This type of controller is called a PID controller if all three controls are combined in the same system, called the PID controller. The integral component automatically resets the controller to eliminate residual error. And provides a rapid response to changes in error. This control is also called Three-Male control.

In this circuit PID control, v1 is a proportional control an integral control v3 is a derivative control and v4 is a summing circuit. Which combines the output of all three controls. And inverts it.

Applications of PID

PID is used in places where both errors are found.

• Software Performance
• Mission Accomplished

When the signal uses the proportional band, it has the following disadvantages.

• In the low proportional band, it works exactly like on-off control.
• The more proportional the band, the lower it gains so that these valves do not close or open completely.
• These always generate offset errors.    